However, in the mid-1950s, the United States and a number of other NATO members began advocating for West Germany to be part of the alliance and allow it to form an army under strict restrictions. The Soviets warned that such provocative action would force them to take new security measures in their own sphere of influence, and they kept their word. West Germany officially joined NATO on May 5, 1955, and the Warsaw Pact was signed less than two weeks later, on May 14. The USSR was joined by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic (GDR), Hungary, Poland and Romania. This line remained constant until the end of the Cold War with the dismantling of all communist governments in Eastern Europe in 1989 and 1990. After World War II, Joseph Stalin saw the world divided into two camps: imperialist and capitalist regimes on the one hand, and the communist and progressive world on the other. In 1947, President Harry Truman also spoke of two diametrically opposed systems: one free and the other designed to subjugate other nations. Russia and other states after the USSR`s accession to the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) in 1992 or the Shanghai Five in 1996, which were renamed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) after the addition of Uzbekistan in 2001.  August 1991 – Senior officials, including Defense Minister Dmitry Yasov, Vice President Gennady Yanayev, and heads of the Interior Ministry and the KGB, detain Gorbachev in his holiday villa in Crimea, but are arrested even after three days; Yeltsin banned the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in Russia and confiscated his assets; Yeltsin recognized the independence of the Baltic republics; Ukraine, followed by other republics, declared itself independent. The Warsaw Pact was declared completed on 25 February 1991 and Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel officially declared it completed on 1 July 1991. Gorbachev`s policy of openness (glasnost) and restructuring (perestroika), as well as other initiatives, paved the way for popular uprisings. The Berlin Wall fell in November 1989 and the communist governments of Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, gdr, Romania and Bulgaria began to fall. The Soviet application for NATO membership arose after the Berlin Conference from January to February 1954.
Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov made proposals for the reunification of Germany and elections for an all-German government, under the conditions of the withdrawal of the armies of the four powers and German neutrality, but all were rejected by the other foreign ministers, Dulles (United States), Eden (United Kingdom) and Bidault (France).  The proposals for the reunification of Germany were not new: earlier on September 20. In March 1952, talks on German reunification, initiated by the so-called «Stalin Note», ended after the United Kingdom, France and the United States insisted that a united Germany should not be neutral and should be free to join and rearm the European Defence Community (EDC). James Dunn (USA), who met Eden, Adenauer and Robert Schuman (France) in Paris, recalled that «the objective should be to avoid a discussion with the Russians and to put pressure on the European Defence Community».  According to John Gaddis, «there was little inclination in Western capitals to explore this offer» of the USSR.  While historian Rolf Steininger argues that Adenauer`s belief that «neutralization means Sovietization» was the main factor in rejecting Soviet proposals, Adenauer also feared that German unification might not have led to the end of CDU domination in the West German Bundestag.  But Soviet archival documents – dating from an earlier era after World War II – reveal that Americans were held in the vast Soviet gulag and even perished. To obtain additional information about Americans released from German prison camps by the Red Army and then interned in Soviet camps, the Joint U.S.-Russian Commission on Prisoners of War/MIA was established in early 1992. Officials of the Library of Congress were authorized, among other things, to search for Russian archival documents on the subject in Moscow. .